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Life poses no more curious a riddle than its termination. This natural and inevitable event may arouse thoughts that can complicate life with fear and anxiety about the unknown. Yet, there remains the practical consideration of carrying out the earthly decisions surrounding life’s final chapter. With so much that we don’t know about death, most of us find it comforting to exert a degree of control about what we do know. In the weeks and months that follow, we will provide our readers with enough information to make end-of-life decisions that will enable them to meet death on their own terms. It is our earnest hope that the information and insights we offer will provide comfort to those most in need of it.

QUOTE: “Our birth made us mortal; our death will make us immortal.”

Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia


Irving Berlin




Down through history, the “hearse” (also known as a “funeral coach”) has evolved from a simple carrying device known as a “bier” to 19th-century wooden hearses with intricately cut mahogany carvings and velvet draperies to the motorized vehicles that we know today. While hearses such as landaus, limousines, and vans still predominate the hearse landscape, many individuals are choosing other types of vehicles as their conveyance of choice. Some prefer vehicles that they had driven during their professional lives for their final journeys, while others favor their dream car, truck, or other vehicle. These alternatives to the traditional black hearse are meant to personalize the funeral procession in a way that most appropriately expresses the inner spirit of the deceased.

QUOTE: “I never saw a U-Haul behind a hearse.”

Billy Graham



Because an epitaph leaves an indelible impression of the person it is meant to reflect, many people choose to compose their own. While some might think that, in this age of cryptic social media messaging, it is easy to sum up one’s life and attitude in a few choice words, it is not necessarily so. Whether one elects to be solemn, philosophical, witty, folksy, ironic, vengeful, sweet, loving, dear, spiritual, casual, formal, self-righteous, dignified, or hilarious, it is no simple task to distill one’s being into a few words. With this in mind, one woman named “Kay” chose to have her fudge recipe carved into her granite gravestone, followed by the words “where ever she goes, there’s laughter.” 

QUOTE: One descriptive epitaph inscription reads “Inclined to mischief.”



Because it preserves the body and presents the deceased in a way that he or she was like when alive, embalming is both an art and a science. Those who want to remember the deceased just the way he or she had lived might choose to take embalming a few steps further than usual. “Extreme embalming,” which is popular in some places such as New Orleans and Puerto Rico, honors the dead by showing them engaging in an activity that they loved while they were alive, flanked by familiar objects or a memorable setting. By positioning the deceased in an accustomed pose in suitable attire in a familiar setting, the goal is to create a “memory photo” of the deceased.

QUOTE: “How can the dead be truly dead when they still live in the souls of those who are left behind?”

Carson McCullers



The Irish tradition of “keening” involves women who would gather together to wail in grief at a funeral. Derived from the Irish word “caoineadh” (meaning to cry or lament), keening had an otherworldly sound that was intended to provide an energetic pathway for the deceased to follow. This lament, which created a portal into the spirit world, was partly tuneful and often composed beforehand in order to be sure to make mention of family and ancestors who had gone before and could provide a spirit ladder for the departing soul to climb back home. While keening died out in Ireland after the Famine, it is still practiced in the Middle East, parts of Africa, and East and Southeast Asia.

QUOTE: “Every parting gives a foretaste of death, every reunion a hint of the resurrection.”

 Arthur Schopenhauer



Aside from the many financial advantages that funeral preplanning provides, there are other benefits on which you cannot put a price. Perhaps the most important of these is the ability to make decisions that lessen the likelihood of future family conflict. As anyone who has ever planned a family event knows, disagreements arise out of decisions great and small. When the emotion surrounding death is allowed to cloud the issue, the risk of strong disagreement can rapidly increase. With this in mind, perhaps the best way to keep emotions in check and ensure a peaceful and respectful observance of a life well-lived is to make funeral arrangements in advance. That is, the way you want them to be.   

QUOTE: “O Death, thou comest when I had thee least in mind!”




After the funeral, the “committal” (or graveside) service is conducted as the coffin is lowered into the ground. This short ritual is usually attended by the immediate family members, other relatives, and closest friends in order to have the opportunity to say their final good-byes. It also often includes the shoveling of dirt and the placing of flowers onto the coffin. Regardless of the type of funeral that proceeds it, the importance of the committal service rests with its chance to give the living a chance to eulogize the deceased. Beginning with a short prayer reflecting the religious and cultural affiliations of the deceased, the committal service continues with spoken testimonials that commemorate the deceased’s life in an intimate setting. 

QUOTE: “In the end, it’s not the years in your life that count. It’s the life in your years.”

Abraham Lincoln



If you have ever wondered where the term “six feet under” came from, its origination can be traced to the Great Plague of London in 1665, when 20 percent of the city’s population succumbed to the Bubonic plague. In the belief that burying the dead a safe distance underground could help stop the spread of disease, The Lord Mayor of London mandated that all graves be dug a minimum of six feet deep. However, because dead bodies were never found to spread the plague to the living, the law was eventually overturned in England and its colonies. It was later reinstated in order to discourage grave robbing. Burial laws now vary from state to state. 

QUOTE: “The idea is not to live forever but to create something that will.”

Andy Warhol



Funeral pre-arrangement plans that include pre-payment enable consumers to pay in advance for options such as the coffin, embalming, chapel, dressing/casketing, floral arrangements, stationery, staff services, and the basic service fee, as well as for cemetery expenses such as the grave, headstone, opening and closing, outer burial container, and other fees. A guaranteed plan locks in the price of such goods and services at the time they are purchased. While a non-guaranteed plan may not lock in prices, it will enable any accumulated funds to accrue interest, which will likely help mitigate final costs. In either case, pre-payment funds are held by a third party, either in a trust or in a life insurance policy. 

QUOTE: “What the caterpillar perceives is the end, to the butterfly is just the beginning.”

Buddhist saying



One of the most eloquent examples of final words left behind by dying individuals can be found in the Japanese tradition of the “death poem,” which is written as death approaches. While these “farewell poems to life” are occasionally written in the three-line, 17-syllable haiku form, the most common type of death poem, a “jisei,” consists of five lines totaling 31 syllables. Often written by Zen monks and other literate individuals, these poems are characterized as graceful, natural, and neutral in emotion that adhere to religious teachings. Instead of mentioning death directly, the poetry uses metaphoric suggestions such as sunsets and falling cherry blossoms. Neither a will nor a eulogy, a death poem is intended as a reflective farewell gesture.

QUOTE: “At last I am leaving: in rainless skies a full moon… pure is my heart.”




While some individuals prefer to be buried in the place where they grew up, others seek to select a burial plot in the place where they have come to live as adults. Many people also take the location of immediate family members into careful consideration, because they are the ones most likely to make regular visits to the grave. Regardless of the factors involved, the choice of a plot is best made as part of a pre-planning approach. Leaving the choice to the deceased’s survivors can place a heavy burden on those involved. Burial in a veterans’ cemetery includes a plot, opening and closing of the grave, perpetual care, a headstone, and military honors, all without charge.

QUOTE: “Heaven lent you a soul, Earth will lend a grave.

Christian Nestell Bovee



It is no more sensible to delay making funeral pre-arrangements than it is to deny the inevitability of death. By addressing in advance the practical matters surrounding death, you can spare your family unnecessary hardship. For this reason alone, everyone should discuss such matters ahead of time. Having an honest conversation with immediate family about death and funeral preparations need not be difficult. In fact, many experience a feeling of relief after this important topic is discussed. Death is a part of life, and funeral arrangements are as important and necessary as planning for other life-altering events. Pre-arranging your funeral makes it possible to take the necessary steps to ensure that your loved ones are spared needless concern. 

QUOTE: “Death never takes the wise man by surprise, he is always ready to go.”

Jean de La Fontaine



No one is more aware of the shock and grief that comes with hearing of the death of a loved one than those who must deliver the news. The person on whom this responsibility falls may want to create a list and divide it with someone else of equal standing in the family. In any case, it may be a good idea to have someone else present when making the calls. Consideration should also be given to the fact that, as difficult as it is to disseminate such news, it may be more traumatic to receive it. With this in mind, it may be preferable to deliver the news in person when circumstances allow. The funeral director can offer guidance.

QUOTE: “That it will never come again is what makes life so sweet.”

Emily Dickinson



Families of eligible U.S. military veterans can request funeral honors through their funeral director, who will contact the appropriate military service to arrange for the honors detail. Free of charge, the rendering of military funeral honors for an eligible veteran is mandated by law. An honor guard detail for the burial of an eligible veteran consists of not less than two members of the Armed Forces. Eligibility is available to military members on active duty or in the selected reserve, former military members who served on active duty and departed under honorable conditions, and former military members who completed at least one term of enlistment or period of initial obligated service in the reserves and departed under honorable conditions.

QUOTE: “Your silent tents of green/We deck with fragrant flowers;/Yours has the suffering been, /The memory shall be ours.”

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow



A death certificate, which is a document that declares the deceased’s name, address, date, location, and cause of death, as well as other important information, must be signed by a medical practitioner  within a prescribed period of time. While processing this document is routine in a hospital, deaths that occur at home may require calls to the deceased’s personal physician or, if necessary, the county medical examiner or coroner. In the days immediately following death, the funeral director prepares the death certificate, which is filed with the county before the body can be buried or cremated. The funeral home usually files the certificate, certified copies of which will be needed later for insurance, probate, and other purposes.  

QUOTE: “For death is no more than a turning of us over from time to eternity.” 

William Penn



In order to help ensure that they will be remembered in the way they want, some individuals take on the task of writing their own obituaries. This written notice of a person’s death may be brief or long, depending on where it appears and how comprehensive it is meant to be. Aside from including the date of death and the time and place of the funeral or memorial service, the obituary may also make specific mention about wishes for where donations may be made in the deceased’s name. An obituary also includes biographical information such as details about family, education, employment and military service, awards and achievements, primary interests, and a photograph (if desired).

QUOTE: “Whatever you want to do, do it now. There are only so many tomorrows.”

Michael Landon 



At a time when we can take a picture of anyone, anywhere, at any time, it’s interesting to note that our 19th-century forebears were just beginning to discover photography. The earliest form of photography was the “daguerreotype,” which required subjects to sit perfectly still for 60 to 90 seconds while their images formed on a highly polished silver surface. This process was time-consuming and also quite expensive. However, for families with a deceased member, it was the only way to capture a permanent image of their loved one. Post-mortem photography involved propping up the formally dressed deceased in a chair surrounded by his or her loving family. While the technology has changed, the sentiment has not. 

QUOTE: “God gave us memory so that we might have roses in December.”

James M. Barrie



The National Funeral Directors Association (NFDA) reports that, beginning in 2015, the rate of cremation in the United States surpassed that of burial. Although many families have chosen to move away from the traditional practice of burial, earth burial is still regarded as the most ancient means of disposing of the dead. Tracing burial practices back to the time of the Neanderthals reveals evidence of formalized burial procedures that involved burying bodies with tools and other artifacts that would help them in the world beyond. These bodies were also buried in an east-west orientation so that the head of the deceased always faced east. Then, as today, families select whichever method of body disposition provides the greatest assurance and comfort.

QUOTE: “Seashells remind us that every passing life leaves something beautiful behind.” 




By learning how different cultures regard death, we can open ourselves up to new ways of approaching a subject that many people find difficult to talk about. One of the tenets of Hinduism is the belief in repeated incarnations of the soul that result from the moral law of cause and effect, or “karma.” To halt this never-ending cycle of reincarnation, Hindus must free themselves from attachments to material things, including their bodies. To attain this goal, they often meditate on disease and the aging of their bodies, and imagine their own deaths. Confronting mortality in this way helps them conquer the illusion of individual human existence. This approach may offer some insight into preparing oneself for death.             

QUOTE: “The Spirit is neither born nor does it die at any time. It does not come into being or cease to exist. It is unborn, eternal, permanent, and primeval.”




Burial vaults, which are usually made of cement, are used to line a grave prior to the placement of the casket or coffin. While burial vaults are complete enclosures, burial liners do not have bottoms. With a burial liner, the coffin is lowered directly onto the earth and the burial liner is then lowered over the casket. In either case, the purpose of these sturdy structures is to prevent the ground from sinking above and around the casket. Because they prevent the formation of sink holes, many cemeteries require the installation of burial vaults and liners in graves throughout their premises. Vaults and liners do not prevent the decomposition of the body.

QUOTE: “Seeing death as the end of life is like seeing the horizon as the end of the ocean.”




While the British have a reputation for valuing tradition and respecting institutions, a recent survey indicates that their attitudes may be shifting. According to a recent survey conducted by national funeral provider Co-op Funeralcare, 92 percent of UK adults have indicated they no longer want a traditional funeral. In addition, 88 percent revealed they want to plan their unique send-off themselves. When asked what was most important when arranging a final goodbye, over 84 percent of respondents would rather have laughter than tears at their send-off. A further 27 percent wanted their family and friends to arrive wearing color. If nothing else, the survey underscores the importance of discussing and arranging funeral plans beforehand.

QUOTE: “What you leave behind is not what is engraved in stone monuments, but what is woven into the lives of others.”




Because caskets are available in diverse styles, materials, and customizable features, many consider choosing one to be the most difficult part of the funeral-planning process. There are many factors to consider that can help expedite the selection process. Because cremation caskets are going to be ultimately reduced to ashes, they can be limited to inexpensive wood, cardboard, or other highly combustible material. Caskets that are intended for burial can be simple or highly elaborate and customized, while those selected for “green” burials should be composed of a biodegradable material. Wooden caskets are designed to evoke the look of luxurious hardwood furniture, and metal caskets can be painted with images that reflect the spirit of the person resting within.

QUOTE: “A coffin may have a body inside of it, but the spirit has long since departed.”

Anthony T. Hincks



Divorce and remarriage can produce circumstances  in which second spouses and the children of the deceased may be at odds. Matters to do with disposition of a loved one’s body are difficult enough, and when they involve opposing views, the high emotion and time constraints surrounding a funeral can add to the tension. One way to diffuse the stress caused by such a potentially volatile situation calls for the person at the center of it all to pre-empt any argument  by making funeral prearrangements.  We all have it in our power to make our wishes known to others  before the time comes to carry them out. Doing so can bring harmony when and where it is sorely needed.

QUOTE: “How strange this fear of death is! We are never frightened at a sunset.”

George MacDonald



At a military funeral, the flag that drapes the casket of the deceased veteran is positioned with the union field at the head and over the left shoulder of the deceased. After taps is played, the flag is folded into the symbolic tri-cornered shape and presented to the veteran’s family. The thirteen folds of the flag represent the thirteen original colonies, while the triangular shape represents the patriots’ tri-cornered hat. In addition, each fold represents a different belief, honor, tribute, or recognition, with the first fold symbolizing life, the second the belief in eternal life, and the third honoring the departed veteran who gave a portion of his or her life for the defense of our country.

QUOTE: “I don’t want to die without any scars.”

Charles Palahniuk



Death is a stressful event with the potential to place a great deal of strain on the hearts of those whom the deceased has left behind. This stress can be so great that it leads to a rare condition that mimics the symptoms of a heart attack. “Broken heart syndrome” (or “stress-induced cardiomyopathy”) produces symptoms such as sudden, intense chest pain  and shortness of breath. These symptoms are not caused by blocked arteries. Instead, they arise as a result of an enlarged heart that does not pump correctly  due to the release of stress hormones that are produced in response to the emotions of grief and anger. Grief counseling helps deal with the stress surrounding death.   

QUOTE: “Grief is itself a medicine.” 

William Cowper



Funerals often involve visitations, viewing, or wakes, which are usually attended by those who were close to the deceased or family members of the person who has passed. Held during the posted visiting hours, a visitation provides a chance for family, friends, and associates to express their sympathy. The family of the deceased may also choose to make a visitation open only to family and close friends in order to keep the proceeding more intimate. This is an occasion for restraint, soft voices, and respect. If there is a viewing, before or during the visitation, those in attendance have their opportunity to take one last look at the deceased and say their goodbyes prior to the burial.  

QUOTE: “Death leaves a heartache no one can heal; Love leaves a memory no one can steal.”

Irish saying



A cemetery is somewhat like an art museum in that many of the headstones it contains are artfully presented as pieces of granite sculpture. One of the most interesting elements of headstone design are the meaningful images carved into the stone. Among the most common of these symbols is an angel, which guards the tomb and represents a messenger between man and God. The dove, seen in both Jewish and Christian cemeteries, symbolizes resurrection, innocence, and peace. Its ascension denotes the transport of the departed’s soul to heaven. A dove lying dead symbolizes a life prematurely cut short. If the dove is holding an olive branch, it symbolizes that the soul has reached divine peace in heaven.  

QUOTE: “The Dove, on silver pinions, winged her peaceful way.”

James Montgomery



The words “She did it the hard way” are inscribed on Bette Davis’ tombstone. She wished to be remembered by this phrase, which reflects the Hollywood actress’ hard fight for success. One need not be famous to leave famous last words behind, as exemplified by Lester Moore, who was buried at Boot Hill Cemetery in Tombstone, Arizona. His grave carries the immortal words “Here lies Lester Moore, four slugs from a .44, no Les no more.” Whether an epitaph is sober, reflective, humorous, or inspirational, it leaves all who view it with a lasting impression. For those wishing to write their own history, an epitaph carved in stone provides the last word.  

QUOTE: “I told you I was ill.”

epitaph of comedian Spike Milligan



If you or a loved one decides to be cremated, choosing what to do with the cremains comes next. For those wanting to have their cremains committed to a special place that can be visited, ashes can be buried in a “sacred place” (like a cemetery) or they can be kept in a columbarium (essentially, a mausoleum for cremation urns). Others may elect to store cremains in a beautiful urn that remains in a loved one’s home or is rotated between family members. Some individuals entertain the notion of having their cremains dispersed at sea, in a special place on land, or simply cast to the wind. In such cases, it is very important not to disperse cremains without permission.

QUOTE: “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.”

Genesis 3:19



It is nearly always more difficult to make a purchasing decision that requires immediate attention than one that allows time for planning and careful consideration. Those who plan their funerals ahead of time have the opportunity to view their interment more as a commodity than a crisis. Because surviving relatives are likely to view the funeral of a loved one more like the latter than the former, it behooves us all to make our own decisions surrounding our funerals. Individuals who preplan their funerals have the luxury of being able to comparison shop for products and services in a way that no one else can. This can lead to great savings, in terms of both spent emotions and finances.

QUOTE: “As a well-spent day brings happy sleep, so a life well spent brings happy death.” 

Leonardo da Vinci



Each of us is a valuable repository of personal history that can inspire, inform, and enlighten members of our family. Unless this personal narration is preserved, it will be lost. Because few of us have the time or talent to write an autobiography, it is to our advantage to interview our grandparents and other elders of our families in front of a video camera. Doing so preserves remembrances and anecdotes that might not be uttered or remembered again the same way. Far from benefitting only the listeners, recording family history also profits the tellers, who have a chance to reveal themselves in a new light. Photographs and videos also give added substance to the funerals of those who have passed.

QUOTE: “One lives in the hope of becoming a memory.”

Antonio Porchia



While many people shy away from contemplating the inevitability of death, increasing numbers of individuals and groups are discussing dying well. This topic is most likely to be directly addressed in hospice and palliative care settings, when dying individuals and their families are confronted with end-of-life decisions. It is also a common topic among those who want to ensure that the quality of life in their last days will be consistent with their wishes. Accordingly, a team of researchers has identified core elements that should be considered when contemplating a “good death.” They are: preference for a specific dying process, a religious/spiritual element, emotional well-being, life completion, dignity, family, quality of life, and a relationship with a health provider.

QUOTE: “God pours life into death and death into life without a drop being spilled.”  

Unknown author



Many people who have had “God encounter experiences” report that they have been changed as a result. According to a survey involving more than 4,000 individuals (with an average age of 38 years) most participants who had God encounter experiences reported positive effects on their mental health. About three-quarters of the respondents said the experience was “among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant lifetime experiences, with moderate to strong persisting positive changes” to their mental health. About two-thirds of participants indicated they had a decreased fear of death as a result of the experiences. When people say they are “spiritual, but not religious,” it means they have simply chosen to take a personal journey to finding life’s answers.  

QUOTE: “True prayer is neither a mere mental exercise nor a vocal performance. It is far deeper than that—it is spiritual transaction with the Creator of Heaven and Earth.”

Charles Spurgeon



Just as destination weddings and gender reveal parties have changed the way people are choosing to celebrate marriage and birth, the rituals surrounding death are also changing. Particularly in cases where cremation is chosen over body burial, memorial services (where the body is not present) are increasingly replacing funerals (where the body is present). These celebratory events tend to be more life-centered than mournful, and often revolve around the deceased’s personality and interests. It seems people are finding it more important than ever to plan a funeral or memorial ceremony that is most appropriate to the deceased’s and well-wishers’ desires. The final ritual surrounding one’s demise should be as unique and personal as the person it honors.

QUOTE: “I believe there are two sides to the phenomenon known as death, this side where we live, and the other side where we shall continue to live. Eternity does not start with death. We are in eternity now.” 

Norman Vincent Peale



Preplanning your funeral entitles you to make the final decisions about the type of funeral and burial you want. Doing so spares your surviving relatives the emotional stress of making difficult decisions  related to your funeral, burial, or cremation. It is important to make your preferences known after giving these matters careful consideration. Otherwise, those you leave behind  will be burdened with the monumental decisions regarding how you would like your body disposed of, where you might wish to be buried, and other vital details   affecting your relatives’ own lives  for years to come. While we may not know  what life has in store, we can anticipate and prepare for its finality. 

QUOTE: “That it will never come again is what makes life so sweet.”

Emily Dickenson



In 2018, more than half of Americans chose cremation, and the forecast is that the national cremation rate will reach 80 percent  by 2035.  Despite the rising popularity of this method of body disposal, many individuals are unclear about it. For instance, there is a common misconception that choosing cremation means there cannot be a funeral. The fact is that cremation allows for more memorialization options than less. There could be a funeral with or without a viewing, followed by cremation at a later time. A memorial service could be held at a traditional funeral home, after which there would be an interment of the ashes. There are many more options, underscoring the need to preplan and consider the possibilities. 

QUOTE: “It is not the length of life but the depth of life.”

Ralph Waldo Emerson



Those familiar with grief know that guilt can be part of the grieving process.  For instance, guilt is often felt by those who are relieved that a loved one has died. This feeling stems from the belief that death may come as a blessing to those who have endured prolonged suffering and pain due to terminal illness. These feelings and the guilt they engender are most commonly experienced by caregivers, who have first-hand knowledge of the pain that terminal patients go through. These individuals, in particular, should understand that their guilt is misplaced.  Caregivers may also find themselves in a different stage of grief than most, as they often may grieve before death arrives.

QUOTE: “Life hurts a lot more than death.”

Jim Morrison



 Those chosen for the honored position of pallbearer usually include close family or friends, although colleagues of the deceased or anyone else may serve. Corresponding to the six handles on a casket (three on each side), there are six pallbearers, although handles on the front and back sides of the casket allow for two additional people to carry the casket. In addition to considering the person’s relationship to the deceased, physical ability must also be taken into account. If a person is deemed unable to physically participate in the pallbearer’s role, he or she can be designated an “honorary pallbearer.” There is no limit to honorary pallbearers, who can walk in front of, beside, or behind the casket.

QUOTE: “Everyone can master a grief but he that has it.”




One traditional way of funding a funeral involves the purchase of “funeral insurance.” This type of policy is designed to pay for the funeral, burial, and other “final expenses.” Otherwise known as “burial insurance,” “final expense insurance,” or “pre-need insurance,” these policies require that the policyholder calculate how much will be needed to cover final expenses. This insurance helps avoid complications and delays stemming from circumstances in which there is not enough money in the deceased’s estate to cover these expenses. Even if there is enough money left behind to cover final expenses, many individuals do not want their estates to become depleted by their final expenses. If so, funeral insurance is a good option.  

QUOTE: “All presidents… get a knock at the door…a man there saying, 'Let's talk about your funeral.' …I thought, God, that's a terrible thing. Later, I thought it was pretty wise.”

Nancy Reagan



Families who have strong links with one another, who are faithful to the traditions of their kinfolk, and who live in relatively close proximity  may want to consider providing a “mausoleum” for their descendants. These buildings, which house the remains of one or more deceased persons, have their precedence in the architecturally stunning Taj Mahal and Egypt’s Great Pyramids. Naturally, the size and style of this type of above-ground entombment varies in accordance with personal preferences. One advantage of a mausoleum is that it reduces the amount of land that is used for a burial, making it more ecologically friendly than an underground burial. In addition, because a mausoleum is a building, it can shelter visitors from inclement weather.

QUOTE: “Ancient Egyptians believed that…two questions and their answers would determine whether they could continue their journey in the afterlife. “Did you bring joy?” “Did you find joy?”                                                             

Leo Buscaglia



Cremation may reduce a body to ashes, but the place where those ashes are stored need not be any less physically enduring that a gravesite with a tombstone. While some people may assume that “cremains” are scattered to the wind or deposited in an urn for safekeeping at home, they may treated in the same ways that a body can. Not only can cremains be buried in a cemetery, but they can also be committed to a “cremation niche.” Whether it is located outdoors or as part of an indoor mausoleum, a “columbarium” has small spaces, called “niches,” for placing cremated remains in urns or other approved containers. Most cremation niches are made of marble or premium granite. 

QUOTE: “Death doesn’t exist. You only reach a new level of vision, a new realm of consciousness, a new unknown world.”

Henry Miller



Many individuals think that “advance directives” are a good idea, but are not urgently needed, and  their family or physician will somehow know their wishes. Unfortunately, this line of thinking often leads to unnecessary stress and complications.   The directive known as a “living will” clearly points out the kind of life-sustaining medical treatment(s) that a person would or would not want  if he or she could not speak for him- or herself. Documents of this type should be on file with an attorney or trusted family member or friend. Another directive, known as a “medical power of attorney,” allows a select person to be an agent of the non-responsive person and make decisions about his or her care. 

QUOTE: “Every new beginning comes from another beginning’s end.”



In the immediate aftermath of a death, the event must be reported to the proper authorities in order that the death certification process can begin. This procedure is completed by a physician or coroner and funeral director. Several copies of the death certificate will be needed  in order to dispose of the body, settle the estate, and satisfy the requirements of bank accounts, insurance policies, etc. The death certification process can be expedited  if the deceased is in a hospital, nursing home, or hospice  due to the fact that trained people can help cover all the necessary steps. If the police are called, as a last resort, it should be noted that a funeral director will be needed to claim the body for burial or cremation.

QUOTE: “If you don’t know how to die, don’t worry; Nature will tell you what to do on the spot, fully and adequately.”




According to the fifth National Funeral Directors Association’s annual Consumer Awareness and Preferences Study in a row, consumers acknowledge the importance of preplanning their own funeral, but fail to follow up on the notion. While 62.5 percent of consumers felt that it was very important to communicate their funeral plans and wishes to family members, prior to their own death, only 21.4 percent had done so. There were several factors that consumers cited as preventing them from planning, including: preplanning is not a priority; that they have not thought about it; or that prepaying is too costly. In order to overcome these self-imposed obstacles to preplanning and get accurate information, all are encouraged to engage us in a personal conversation. 

QUOTE: “Let no one weep for me, or celebrate my funeral with mourning; for I still live, as I pass to and fro through the mouths of men.”

Quintus Ennius



If a person dies without having made their funeral and burial preferences legally known, the decision rests with the nearest relative. If the next-of-kin is unavailable or unable to make the decision, the next of kin hierarchy is followed, until someone is found. This line of individuals, who must be 18 years old or older, proceeds downward from spouse/domestic partner, to children, parents, siblings, authorized guardian, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, nieces and nephews, grand-nieces and nephews, grandparents, aunts and uncles, first cousins, great-grandchildren of grandparents, second cousins, and lastly, a fiduciary (a legally appointed trustee). Some states allow a close friend  who is acquainted with the deceased’s wishes  to qualify as next of kin  if no one else is able or available.

QUOTE: “Do not seek death. Death will find you. But seek the road which makes death a fulfillment.”

Dag Hammarskjold